All the details of proper welding :
What is an Inverter microwave or how you will operate it , today we will discuss about it.
How to cook properly by welding: theory, practical experience, tips and recommendations of professionals and experienced amateurs.
If you score in the search engine the phrase “How to cook welding correctly with piece electrodes” or “Learn to cook”, then there will be several dozen articles show how to weld metal yourself with an inverter.
Form house summarized the material. He chose the most useful tips and will tell beginners how to master inverter electric welding in a few days.
- The theory for the novice
- What you need to use to start working with the inverter
- Video, about the advantages of the welding mask “chameleon” The
- main types and types of brands of electrodes
- How to choose and apply the correct polarity
- How to choose the diameter of the electrode
- Two main ways to ignite the electrodes
- How to properly guide the electrode and at what angle to hold it
- Welding practice for beginners
- Beginner’s guide to welding, what accessories can require
- Theory of welding operations
A novice welder thinks about what kind of welding inverter to buy, and what devices will need for welding metal with electrodes. If you discard the professional use of welding, buy a welding inverter, not a transformer or semi-automatic welding.
The welding inverter converts alternating current from the electrical network to direct current.
Advantages of an inverter welding machine, compared to a semi-automatic machine and a transformer:
- Light weight and dimensions, on average, the inverter weighs 3-5 kg.
- Easy to use for beginners.
- Allows you to quickly master the welding business.
You can talk about the advantages of inverters endlessly, but it is better to see once to understand what advantages this type of welding equipment has.
Now we will tell you what the process is during metal welding and how to evaluate the result. There are two metal blanks of different sizes. A constant voltage from the welding inverter can apply to the metal through the electrode and the mass.
To create an electric arc, you need two conductive elements with a plus and a minus. When the metal can touch to an electrode that has different polarities, an electric arc is ignited with the release of high temperature.
The metal begins to melt and, at the same time, when moving, the metal rod of the electrode with a special coating – coating melts.
During combustion, the coating creates gas protection of the joint, protecting it from the harmful effects of oxygen.
Also, during welding, a protective slag layer of the welding bath will form, which is then beaten off with a special hammer of the welder.
After the welding of the parts can finish, the metal cools, crystallizes, and forms a strong welded joint.
What you need to buy to start welding
This question will answer by the article-Tools and accessories for manual arc welding: a basic set. In short, you will need to start welding with an inverter at home:
- Welder’s mask.
- Gaiters or protective gloves.
- Protective trigger, pants and closed shoes.
- Welder’s hammer and slag removal brush.
The specialist tells about the choice of a mask for metal welding in this video. The best choice for a novice welder is a mask with a chameleon-type light filter.
Its invaluable advantage, compared to a conventional protective shield with darkened glass – is that the welder sees the parts will weld.
He does not need to raise and lower the mask, because the “chameleon” automatically darkens when a welding arc appears and reliably protects the eyes.
When the welding process is stopped, the glass can automatically illuminate. This simplifies the work. A beginner in welding will not pick up the so-called “bunnies” from a bright flash of the arc, if he does not lower the mask with ordinary glass in time.
What are the types of electrodes by brand
If you go to any specialized store selling welding equipment and look at the range, then your eyes just run away from the offers of different types of electrodes. What to buy?
When choosing the electrodes for welding, pay attention to the composition of the core. The metal of the rod must be identical to the metal can weld.
There are the following types of electrodes. For welding:
- Carbon and alloy steel
- For welding stainless steel and non-ferrous metals.
Let’s simplify the choice. In everyday life, ordinary “black” metal is most often welded – profile and round pipes, corners, strips, fittings, channels, I-beams, water pipes, etc.
Also pay attention to the coating of the electrodes. There are four types of coatings – basic, rutile, acidic, and cellulose.
We will leave out of the scope of this article the acidic and cellulose coating of the electrodes. For home work, the welder only needs electrodes with a rutile coating (MR-3 and OK 63 grades) and a basic coating (UONI 13/55 grade).
Advantages of electrodes with a basic coating:
Suitable for welding critical structures with high requirements for the quality of the seam.The seam is plastic and shock-resistant.
Lack of basic coated electrodes:
Increased requirements for the cleanliness of the surface of the metal to be welded and the processing of the edges of the parts.
For novice welders, it is more difficult to re-ignite the electrode.
Advantages of futile-coated electrodes:
- The metal splashes less.
- Easy re-ignition of the electrode.
- Arc stability in all spatial positions.
How to choose the polarity when welding metal with electrodes
The inverter for manual arc welding produces a constant current. If you look at the front panel of the machine, you will see that there are two connectors for connecting welding cables with the labels + and -.
Direct polarity: a “clothespin” can connect to the plus of the device, and a holder will connect to the minus.
Reverse polarity: the electrode holder can connect to the plus side of the device, and the clip “clothespin” will connect to the minus side.
Which polarity should I choose? Quite a few copies have broken about this issue. If you open the training materials on welding and ask on the Internet, you can often hear the opinion that the” direct polarity ” of the welded metal can better warm and melt.
Practice refutes this.
When welding, on contact with the plus, more heat will release, so on the reverse polarity, the holder is connected to the plus, the weld is always deeper.
As a result, it is better to weld metal with thick walls on the reverse polarity. This is a profile pipe, plates, a corner with a thickness of 4-5 mm. Conversely, a thin metal with a thickness of no more than 1.5-2 mm should be welded on the direct polarity to avoid melting the walls and the appearance of holes.
You can make sure that this statement is true in practice. Take a welding inverter, set the welding current to 100 A.
Connect to the ports on the machine electrode holder and ground and cut the metal plate with a thickness of 4-5 mm, angle first in direct and then in reverse polarity without changing the amperage and electrode diameter of 3 mm. You will see that metal cutting is faster on the reverse polarity.
How to choose the diameter of the electrode for welding metal of different thickness
Remember a simple rule: the diameter of the electrode depends on the thickness of the metal that will weld.
Metal with a thickness of less than 1 mm can usually cook by semi-automatic or argon arc welding, rather than by electrodes.
For each diameter of the electrodes, a different current is set.
Advice to novice welders: you can calculate the current strength as follows: for each 1 mm of the diameter of the electrode, you need about 30 A of current. I.e., for the “troika” electrode, set the current to about 90-100 A.
In practice, each welder selects the diameter of the electrode and the current on the inverter individually.
How to ignite the electrode:
There are two ways:
Option one: ignite the electrode-end-to-end (touch).
Option two: when you swipe your. The methods are clear from the photo below.
The second method is similar to lighting a match on a matchbox. The first method will sometimes replace a light tapping on the work piece. When the electrode is new and the metal of the rod is visible at the tip, arc ignition is easy.
If the electrode was in operation, then an influx of coating may appear around the rod. The protective coating of the electrode does not conduct electric current.
Therefore, it must repel by tapping the tip of the electrode several times on the part to be welded. Easy ignition of the electrode will develop a skill brought to automatism.
How to guide the electrode and the correct angle of the electrode
After the arc will ignite, check the welding bath. Hold the electrode at a distance of 2-3 mm from the surface of the work pieces to be welded. You must see and separate the weld pool from the slag.
A welding bath is a bright white spot of hot metal:
Hold the electrode at an angle of 30° to 60°, while maintaining the optimal distance, as the rod melts. Monitor its position and the state of the welding pool. Speed up or slow down the hand movement depending on different conditions and occasions.
The angle of inclination of the electrode is selected by the welder depending on the spatial position, the weld and the exposed current.
The faster you drive the electrode, the lower the heating of the metal and the amount of penetration. If you lead the electrode slowly, you can overheat the metal and burn a hole in the product.
To train independently, a beginner first needs to use a thick sheet of metal. Task: learn how to ignite a welding arc and guide the electrode along a horizontal surface to get a high-quality seam.
After that, you can start welding in other spatial positions. A good help for beginners will be a video Welding for “dummies” from FORUM HOUSE, in which a technical specialist Denis Zamyslov will talk about the basics of welding skills and the choice of an inverter device.
Make a fence out of profiled sheet. I want to weld the corners to the posts. I’ve never done welding before. No experience. Advise me where to start to make it reliable, and how to properly cook with a welding inverter?
For welding, take a regular household welding inverter.
The optimal diameter of the electrode is 2.5 mm, the “three – piece” requires more current.
Ignite the electrode. To do this, strike it on a flat metal surface.
Lead the welding seam in eights. Starting from the bottom-up with a step of no more than 1 mm.
Do not cook the product immediately from the beginning to the end. Make a couple of tacks so that the metal does not lead due to the heating of different sides.
If there are voids left after welding and chipping the slag, boil these places again.
Beat off the slag. Take care of your eyes! Wear protective glasses or do it in a chameleon welding mask.
The most popular electrode in everyday life is the “troika”. Standard inverters pull the “four”, and you do not need more. You can change and select the current strength during the welding process, choosing the optimal mode. Expose too much – you will burn a hole, too little-the electrode will stick.
In the piggy bank of knowledge:
- Welding seams are horizontal, vertical and ceiling.
- The easiest one for beginners is horizontal.
A high-quality vertical seam is especially difficult to make because of the uncomfortable working conditions.
The task of the welder is to “blind” the two edges of the metal to be welded together and weld the molten metal from the electrode rod on top of the seam.
To weld a steel corner to a metal post, it is better to use clamps or magnetic squares. If you ask a friend for help to hold the work piece, then he can pick up “bunnies” and get burned due to splashes of molten metal.
How to accurately determine the optimal welding current?
Take a metal billet. Set the current a little more and cook. If you burn through metal, reduce the current.
Find the current at which you will be comfortable cooking without burning the metal. Experience is gained through practice. Practice on rusty pieces of metal, fill your hand.
After a few electrodes burned on potholders for rust, then, on good metal, things will go faster.
My advice: carefully clean the welded parts and joints from rust and paint to clean metal.
You can also learn how to cook beautiful seams on the vertical. After performing such a workout, the horizontal seam becomes perfect.
The initial training task is completed. We talked about the basic basics and technologies of welding with an inverter for home craftsmen.
Again, everyone has the opportunity to make beautiful, smooth and high-quality seams. They are obtained only with regular practice and burned several kg of electrodes.
Tips for novice welders:
Before welding, do not forget to use protective equipment. Very important! Do not cook without a mask, krag and special clothing-a welding suit, the material of which will not burn sparks and splashes of hot metal, otherwise you can damage your eyes or get burned open areas of the body.
Store the electrodes in a dry place. Do not cook with damp electrodes or electrodes with chipped coating. You can dry the electrodes in an electric oven or in a household oven.
The more you train and use metal and electrodes, the better the welds will be. Starting with the welding of the fence from profiled flooring, over time, you will move on to more complex work.
Welding of arches, greenhouses, sliding and swing gates, gates, canopies over the house, homemade tools and devices that are used in the home workshop.
Especially welding is useful in the construction of a house, if it is supposed to work with metal structures and pipe profiles, fittings, corner, channel, etc. are used.
You can learn more about proper welding with an inverter in the topic learning to work with a welding machine.
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Secrets of mastery: how to choose a welding machine, at what current to cook different metals.
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We make a steam punk mirror: how to cook a frame with electric welding for a mirror, how to work with metal, useful tools for the workshop.
I’m Sahadat Hossain. I am working as Assistant Professor at Joynagor Technical and BM College. Besides, I have one welding workshop business from 2013. And in 2018 I started blogging about welding accessories. I want to share my experience with using welding accessories. In this blog, all content is written by me.